ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series No. 2 (Rev. 1)

SUBJECT CATEGORIES
AND SCOPE DESCRIPTIONS

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
VIENNA, AUGUST 2010


SUBJECT CATEGORIES AND SCOPE DESCRIPTIONS
IAEA, Vienna, 2010
IAEA-ETDE/INIS-2
ISBN 92-0-112902-5
ISSN 1684-095X

© IAEA, 2010

Published by the IAEA in Austria
August 2010

Preface

This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used by national and regional centres for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS input, and for categorization of the energy technology literature for the preparation of ETDE input. Together with volumes of the INIS Reference Series and ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and the Energy Technology Data Exchange. A list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series and ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series can be found at the end of this publication.

At the 27th Consultative Meeting of INIS Liaison Officers (Vienna, Austria, 25-27 May 1999), it was recommended to adopt a simplified subject category scheme, common to the INIS and ETDE databases, which was prepared by a joint INIS/ETDE working group. The corresponding scope descriptions prepared by the same working group were endorsed by the 5th INIS/ETDE Joint Technical Committee meeting, Knoxville, TN, USA, 28-29 October 1999.

At the 11th Joint INIS/ETDE Technical Committee Meeting, 6-8 November 2007, Vienna, Austria, a new working group was created to review the INIS/ETDE subject categories. Members of the working group included the INIS Secretariat, ETDE OA, Germany, Japan and Switzerland. The objectives of this working group were:

Discussion among the working group members led to the introduction of four new subject categories:

In all, more than 30 categories, both INIS and ETDE, were either updated to include newer concepts and/or areas of research and development or added as new subject categories.

This categorization scheme contains now 49 one-level broad subject categories, both for INIS and ETDE. These categories have three-character alphanumeric codes. The scope descriptions are given for both INIS and ETDE on opposite pages.

The secretariat wishes to acknowledge the assistance, comments and suggestions received from national INIS centres in the preparation of the new revision of the present document and continues to invite comments and criticism, which should be sent to:

INIS Section, IAEA
P.O. Box 100
A-1400 Vienna
Austria

or

ETDE Operating Agent
P.O. Box 1000
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
USA

Introduction

This ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes:

It is thus the guide to inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in the INIS or ETDE databases

Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS and ETDE is the sum of the scopes of all the categories respectively

With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended.

A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories. Index-based subject categorization is likely to be wrong and must be avoided.

Subject classifiers, who are expected to be subject specialists at INIS and ETDE inputting centres, are requested to identify the significant topics of each item of literature and to report the item only if it contains significant information that falls within the subject scope of INIS or ETDE. The main topic (from the "nuclear science" point of view for INIS and from the "energy technology" point of view for ETDE) is the basis for determining the primary subject category. The INIS: Guide to Bibliographic Description (IAEA-INIS-1) requires the assignment of a primary subject category to each record (in Tag 008) The primary category should be the one for which the scope description encompasses the main INIS/ETDE topic discussed in the piece of literature. If there are significant secondary topics discussed in the piece of literature that fall within the scope description of a category or categories other than the one relevant to the main topics of the paper, the rules permit the assignment of one or more secondary categories for the piece of literature. Furthermore, in order to create subsets of the database containing references to literature that might be useful in a particular area, it has been found advantageous in certain cases to additionally assign a secondary category to indicate the field of application or area of usefulness of the information contained in the piece of literature. This is also permitted under INIS/ETDE rules. Although their number is not limited, more than one or two secondary categories rarely should be needed.

Table of Contents

S01 Coal, lignite, and peat

Environmental aspects of developing, transporting and using coal, coal products, lignite and peat for energy production, including studies on animal life, plant life, cultural resources of the affected area, land, air, surface water and groundwater pollution, site revegetation and overall effects

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants fueled by coal, lignite, peat and gas from coal gasification, economic aspects of accidents

S02 Petroleum

Environmental aspects of the various steps in drilling, production, refining, transporting and using petroleum and petroleum products for energy production, including oil spills and studies on animal life, plant life, cultural resources of the affected area, land, air, surface water and groundwater pollution, site revegetation and overall effects

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants fueled by petroleum, economic aspects of accidents

S03 Natural gas

Environmental aspects of the various steps in drilling, production, processing, transporting and using natural gas, including liquefied natural gas (LNG), for energy production, production, transport, storage of LNG and LNG spills, including studies on animal life, plant life, cultural resources of the affected area, land, air, surface water and groundwater pollution, site revegetation and overall effects

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants fueled by natural gas, economic aspects of accidents

S04 Oil shales and tar sands

Environmental aspects of developing, transporting and using oil shales and tar sands for energy production, in-cluding studies on animal life, plant life, cultural resources of the affected area, land, air, surface water and groundwater pollution, site revegetation and overall effects of disposal of spent shales, tar sand tailings, etc.

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using these energy sources, economic aspects of accidents

S07 Isotopes and radiation sources

Isotope production, separation and enrichment: industrial methods of production, enrichment and separation of stable and radioactive isotopes (other than the isotopes of uranium), including the design, construction, operation, maintenance and safety aspects of facilities and equipment, industrial production of tritium, commercial radioisotope generators and production of radioactively labelled compounds in industrial quantities

Isotopic radiation sources: design, construction, operation and safety aspects of isotopic radiation sources such as neutron sources, gamma sources, etc., including isotopic power supplies, isotopic X-ray sources and associated facilities, regardless of their application, radiation source metrology, including activity measurement of radiation sources, calculation and measurement of dose distribution from radiation sources, radiation source standardization and calibration, standard sources, and units for radiation and activity measurements

Production of heavy water: industrial processes for the separation of deuterium from hydrogen including the design, construction, operation, maintenance and safety aspects of facilities and equipment

Industrial applications of radiation, accelerated particles, radioisotopes and fission products for measurement and control, radiation processing, including calculation and measurement of absorbed doses, radiation treatment of agricultural and biological wastes

Advances in tracer technique (with radioactive or stable isotopes) when no specific application is indicated

Environmental aspects of the use of isotopes and radiation sources and their associated facilities and equipment, including selection criteria and suitability studies for siting, environmental implications resulting from generation, on-site treatment and release of radioactive, chemical and thermal effluents, environmental consequences predicted from the analysis of design basis or hypothetical accidents, and of performance of safety systems, including those involving handling and transport of radioactive materials

Economic aspects of production and utilization of radioactive and stable isotopes and other radiation sources in power production, radiometric industrial applications, radiation processing and tracer techniques, economics of heavy water production (e.g. supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits)

Legal and regulatory aspects, including licensing procedures and inspection, for production, handling, operation, trade, transfer and supply of radioisotopes and radiation sources, legislation for national or international transport of radioactive materials or radiation sources by any means, and of accident prevention

S08 Hydrogen

Environmental aspects of developing, transporting and using hydrogen as a fuel.

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand; economics of power plants using hydrogen, economic aspects of accidents

S09 Biomass fuels

Environmental aspects of developing, transporting and using energy crops and wastes directly as fuels (e.g., wood, straw, municipal wastes), fuels derived from energy crops and wastes (e.g., methane, ethanol), biogas from sanitary landfills, including pollution arising from any part of the biofuels cycle and land impoverishment caused by intensive monoculture for energy crops

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using biomass fuels, economic aspects of accidents

S10 Synthetic fuels

Environmental aspects of developing, transporting and using fuels produced by chemical synthesis, such as inorganic hydrogen compound fuels, town gas, etc.

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using these energy sources, economic aspects of accidents

S11 Nuclear fuel cycle and fuel materials

Fission fuels processing: chemical and physico-chemical processing of ores, seawater or groundwater for recovery of uranium or thorium, including all extraction, conversion, reduction steps, analytical control, and plant and process design, performance, operation, decommissioning, dismantling and safety aspects

Spent fuels reprocessing: reactor fuel reprocessing, including analytical control, chemical separation of stable or radioactive elements, solvent studies, and plant and process design, performance, operation, decommissioning, dismantling and safety aspects

Production of enriched uranium: design, construction, operation, maintenance, decommissioning, dismantling and safety aspects of facilities and equipment, processes for industrial separation of uranium isotopes, such as gaseous diffusion, ultracentrifugation, laser separation, etc.

Uranium and thorium ores: petrogenesis, mineralogy, reserves and resources, prospecting, mining and mechanical processing, including methods, equipment and technical aspects of safety; reserves, resources, and prospecting for uranium and thorium recovery from seawater and groundwater

Environmental aspects of various steps in nuclear fuels cycle, including selection criteria and suitability studies for siting of fission fuel cycle facilities, environmental impact theoretical studies under normal operating conditions for fission fuel cycle installations, environmental implications resulting from generation, on-site treatment and release of radioactive, chemical and thermal effluents from fission fuel cycle facilities under both normal operation and accident conditions, environmental consequences predicted from the analysis of design basis or hypothetical accidents, and of performance of safety systems, including those involving handling and transport of radioactive materials, other environmental impacts of fission fuel cycle facilities (e.g. infrastructure, noise, aesthetics, landscaping)

Nuclear fuel cycle economics: supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, cost categories of uranium resources, economics of prospecting, mining and conversion of uranium and thorium ores, economics of uranium enrichment, economics of plutonium recycling, economics of transport and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, economics of multifuel systems involving breeders and converters, forecasts of fission fuel requirements, fabrication costs of fission fuel elements, economics of uranium and thorium recovery from waters, economic aspects of nuclear accidents

Legal and regulatory aspects, including licensing procedures and inspection, for production, handling, operation, trade, transfer and supply of nuclear fuels and installations and equipment for nuclear fuel cycle facilities, siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle installations, legal aspects of national or international transport of radioactive materials by any means, and of accident prevention

S12 Management of radioactive wastes, and non-radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities

Waste treatment: processing of radioactive wastes, including transmutation technology, processing of non-radioactive wastes generated by nuclear facilities, radioactive waste treatment plants, structures and equipment, tritium processing, containment and recovery, technical aspects of safety

Waste disposal: ultimate storage and disposal of radioactive wastes, disposal of non-radioactive wastes generated by nuclear facilities, structures and equipment used in connection with waste disposal, technical aspects of safety

Legal aspects of waste treatment, of temporary or ultimate storage and disposal of radioactive wastes, including licensing and inspection, of national or international transport of radioactive waste materials by any means, and of accident prevention

S13 Hydro energy

Environmental aspects of developing and using hydroelectric power plants utilizing both dammed streams and undammed, free-flowing streams and ocean currents, including fish-passage facilities, land use, studies on animal and plant life, and cultural resources of the affected area

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using hydro energy, economic aspects of accidents

S14 Solar energy

Environmental aspects of developing and using solar energy, including land use, pollution and resource problems associated with the large-scale production of equipment for the utilization of solar energy, studies on animal and plant life, and cultural resources of the affected area

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using solar energy, economic aspects of accidents

S15 Geothermal energy

Environmental aspects of developing and using geothermal energy, including ground subsidence, noise, earthquakes, uncontrolled blowouts, gaseous emissions and surface water and groundwater effects, studies on animal and plant life, and cultural resources of the affected area

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using geothermal energy, economic aspects of accidents

S16 Tidal and wave power

Environmental aspects of developing and using tidal and wave power, including site environmental studies and environmental impact studies in the construction and operation of tidal power plants

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using tidal and wave power, economic aspects of accidents

S17 Wind energy

Environmental aspects of developing and using wind energy, including effects of wind turbines on the environment (e.g. noise and the effects of site construction)

Economic aspects, such as supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economics of power plants using wind energy, economic aspects of accidents

S20 Fossil-fueled power plants

Environmental aspects of using fossil fuels for power and heat generation, if the type of fossil fuel is not specified

Economic aspects, such as information on companies and organizations, labor factors, market trends, prices, forecasts, statistical information, R & D expenditures, economic aspects of accidents, if the type of fossil fuel is not specified

S21 Specific nuclear reactors and associated plants

Note: This category must be assigned to the relevant literature if the reactor type is specified.

Design, construction, performance, operation, accidents, decommissioning and dismantling of specific reactors (e.g. BWR-, PWR-, PHWR-, WWER-, GCR-, AGR-, HTGR-, LMFBR-types) and reactor plants as energy sources for electricity and heat generation; research reactors, including experimental reactors, zero-power reactors and subcritical assemblies, test, training, production (of fissionable materials, tritium, other isotopes), irradiation (such as chemonuclear reactors), materials testing, and materials processing reactors; other applications, including mobile, propulsion, package, and transportable reactors.

Environmental aspects of fission power reactors, including selection criteria, suitability studies and environmental impact theoretical studies under normal operating conditions for siting fission reactors, environmental implications for ecosystems resulting from generation, on-site treatment and release of radioactive substances, chemical, and thermal effluents from fission reactors, under both normal operation and accident conditions, other environmental impacts (e.g., infrastructure, noise, aesthetics, landscaping) of fission reactors, environmental consequences predicted from the analysis of design basis or hypothetical accidents and performance of safety systems for fission reactors, including those involving handling and transport of radioactive materials

Economic aspects of fission power reactors, including supply and demand, consumption, trade and restraints to trade, prices, market trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures, labor factors, taxes and tax credits, economic comparison of fission reactors with alternative power sources or of different reactor types, fission nuclear power growth, comparative studies of energy consumption, energy sources and their future trends; financing of fission nuclear power; methodology of comparative analysis of fission nuclear energy and other energy costs, general economic planning of fission nuclear power and its integration into regional power supply systems, impacts of policy and energy costs on households, regions, countries, impact of weather on supply and demand, economic aspects of nuclear accidents

Legal aspects, including licensing and inspection, of siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear reactors, trade, transfer and supply of nuclear reactors and equipment, navigation and accident prevention for nuclear ships and other nuclear means of conveyance

(for accidents or incidents at nuclear facilities see the International Nuclear Event Scale in Appendix 2)

S22 General studies of nuclear reactors

Note: This category must be assigned to the relevant literature if no reactor type is specified.

Reactor theory and calculation, including in-pile experiments verifying reactor theory and calculations, and computation of in-reactor processes

Reactor components and accessories, including the design, construction, fabrication, performance (e.g., mechanical integrity, structural analysis, reliability, fracture mechanics), and safety aspects of reactor components and accessories (e.g., cooling systems, coolants, shielding, pressure vessels, loading machines), methods and equipment for in-service (recurring) inspection of reactors or reactor components and accessories

Reactor fuels, including the design, fabrication and performance of fuel pellets, fuel elements and fuel assemblies, fuel-loading procedures, fuel fabrication plants (regardless of type of fuel elements produced), including technical aspects of safety, decommissioning and dismantling

Reactor control systems, including systems for alarm and automatic shutdown and the automatic initiation of protective systems or actions, elements of reactor and reactor plants control system such as drive units, control rods and incorporated instruments, reactor and reactor plants control by on-line computers, man-machine communication problems in reactor control

Liability for nuclear damage: legal aspects of nuclear damage and risk, operator's liability, state responsibility, absolute liability, limited liability, financial security for nuclear risks, insurance for third party liability, insurance for damage to a nuclear installation, insurance for damage by a means of transport, workers' compensation schemes

S24 Power transmission and distribution

Environmental aspects: effects of high-voltage electric fields, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) leakage from transformers, ecological disruptions during transmission line construction, etc....

Economic aspects, such as information on companies and organizations, labor factors, market trends, statistical information on consumption, supply and demand, imports, exports, price trends, forecasts, R & D expenditures

S25 Energy storage

Environmental aspects: environmental implications of the methods, such as mechanical, chemical, electromagnetic, thermal, etc., and devices, such as capacitor banks, flywheels, batteries, pumped water, etc., used for storage of energy

Economic aspects, such as information on companies and organizations, labor factors, market trends, prices, forecasts, statistical information, R & D expenditures of different methods, such as mechanical, chemical, electromagnetic, thermal or pumped storage and devices, such as capacitor banks, flywheels, batteries, etc., used for storage of energy

S29 Energy planning, policy and economy

General economic, political, environmental, legal, and sociological aspects of energy planning and policy, energy analysis and modeling (only non-technical documents), including nuclear controversy, public relations aspects of nuclear energy, and social impact of nuclear accidents

S30 Direct energy conversion

Methods and devices for direct conversion (without intermediate conversion into mechanical work) of actual or simulated nuclear energy (thermal energy and the energy of particles and radiation) into electrical energy, such as magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion and MHD generators, electrohydrodynamic energy conversion and EHD generators, thermoelectric generators, thermionic converters, fuel cells, other converters (e.g. piezoelectric, ferroelectric, magnetothermoelectric, photoelectromagnetic or magnetorestrictive)

Note: solar cells are excluded

S32 Energy conservation, consumption, and utilization

Equipment and methods to reduce energy consumption, to increase energy efficiency.

Energy conservation within buildings, in transportation, in industry and agriculture, optimization of materials, equipment, and processes for reducing energy consumption; waste heat recovery and utilization; waste management for energy or resource recovery

Note: Only if it is of relevance for nuclear technology or of nuclear interest or if it is associated with an actual or simulated nuclear application or radiation application

S33 Advanced propulsion systems

Design and development of advanced propulsion systems for air crafts, space vehicles, interplanetary missions, ships, etc., such as plasma propulsion systems, gas dynamic mirrors, magnetically-guided plasma flows, etc

Components and devices for better fuel economy, more efficient power cycles; better emission-control devices; feasibility studies on the use of alternative fuels

Note: Only if it is of relevance for nuclear technology or of nuclear interest or if it is associated with an actual or simulated nuclear application or radiation application

S36 Materials science

Note: metals, alloys, intermetallic compounds, metallic matrix composites, metallic glasses, ceramics and cermets (e.g., borides, carbides, hydrides, nitrides, oxides, silicides), and other materials (e.g., boron, carbon, graphite, concretes, glass, semiconductor materials, composite materials, plastics, soil, rock, cloth, fluids) if they are associated with an actual or simulated nuclear application.

(See Appendix 1 as a guide for the principal elements of nuclear interest)

Preparation, fabrication, and manufacture (e.g., annealing, bonding brazing, casting, cold working, doping, drawing, electroplating, extrusion, fastening, forging, forming, gelation, hot working, molding, pelletization, powder metallurgy, pressing, refining, rolling, sintering, soldering, surface finishing, swaging, thin film deposition, welding), structure and phase studies (e.g., allotropy, crystal structure and microstructure, crystal-phase transformations, melting points, phase diagrams, solidification, transformation temperatures), mechanical properties (e.g., brittleness, buckling, cracking, creep, deformation, ductility, elastic properties, elongation, embrittlement, fatigue, fracture, friction, hardness, plasticity, Poisson's ratio, rupture, shear properties, strain, strength, stress, tensile properties, toughness, wear, Young's modulus), physical properties (e.g., damping, density, electrical properties including superconductivity and superconducting transition temperatures, magnetic properties, optical properties, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, vapor pressure, thermal expansion, other thermodynamic properties), corrosion and erosion of materials of nuclear interest, and physical radiation effects on the mechanical integrity or physical properties of all materials

Any results coming out of materials testing for determining the integrity or the mechanical properties of materials of actual or potential nuclear use such as fuels, cladding, moderators, structural materials, etc.

S37 Inorganic, organic, physical and analytical chemistry

Note: only if the field is of relevance for nuclear technology or of nuclear interest

(see Appendix 1 as a guide for the principal elements of nuclear interest)

Analytical and separation chemistry (activation, nuclear reaction, radiometric, and radiochemical procedures), inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, electrochemistry, photochemistry, combustion, pyrolysis and high-temperature chemistry;...

Isotope effects on nonnuclear chemical and physical properties of elements and compounds. (isotope effect are not included when used only as a tool in the analysis of reaction mechanisms or in chemical structure studies)....

Isotope exchange if the exchange is of primary concern or the exchange mechanism is used in isotope separation, or chemical and physicochemical methods of isotope separation.

S38 Radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry

Hot-atom chemistry: chemical reactions of atoms or ions of high kinetic energy (more than 1 eV) resulting from nuclear transformations, including recoil production

Properties of radioactive materials: chemical and physico-chemical properties of radioactive elements, compounds or materials

Preparation of radioactively-labelled compounds: chemical separation and preparation of radioisotopes (other than analytical applications and industrial methods of production, separation and enrichment), preparation of radioactively labelled compounds in non-industrial quantities and studies of their stability

Radiation chemistry: radiation-induced chemical reactions, including formation of free radicals and G value determination, analysis of radiolytical products; chemical radiation effects on gases, liquids, and solids (excluding industrial applications)

Note: effects of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation as well as laser beams are excluded

S42 Engineering

Design, construction, operation, safety aspects, decommissioning, dismantling, and applied mechanics studies of structures and nuclear equipment (such as floor supports, ventilation fans, air filters, off-gas systems, valves), laboratories, pilot plants and factories not covered by a more specific category

Note: for any structure or piece of equipment whose application is identified, always use the category for the application

Heat transfer and fluid flow studies (e.g., nucleate boiling, boiling burnout, critical heat flux, two-phase flow, flow in rod bundles, flow of liquid metals) of nuclear systems or in relation to nuclear systems, including nuclear techniques (tracers only if the application is new)

Peaceful use of nuclear explosions and their simulation

Aspects (including safety and administrative aspects) of the transport and interim storage of radioactive materials, including fresh and spent reactor fuels

Design, development, construction, evaluation, safety analyses and testing of shipping and storage containers for radioactive materials

Design, construction, operation and safety aspects of equipment and facilities for handling radioactive materials such as remote-handling equipment, glove boxes, hot cells, etc. (non-reactor criticality studies are included, but reactor loading is excluded)

Materials testing (methods and equipment (destructive and non-destructive) for determining the integrity or the mechanical properties of materials of actual or potential nuclear use such as fuels, cladding, moderators, structural materials, etc.)... Note: for any results of materials testing use. S36

S43 Particle accelerators

Design, development, operation, decommissioning, dismantling, and safety aspects of particle accelerators and storage rings; use of particle accelerators for beam production, including particle beams, ion beams, and photon beams; beam dynamics, field calculations, ion optics; components and auxiliaries (e.g. ion and electron sources, injection and extraction systems, magnet coils, vacuum systems, shielding, experimental facilities and equipment, such as target facilities, facilities used as a radiation source (e.g. X-ray sources, neutron sources); devices for measuring beam parameters, etc.)

S46 Instrumentation related to nuclear science and technology

Note: for detectors and instrumentation incorporated in a larger device or system the appropriate category for that device or system should be used

Design, development, manufacture, testing, evaluation and standardization of radiation dosemeters, nuclear spectroscopic instrumentation, (e.g. instruments for measurement of energy spectra of nuclear particles or radiation), high-energy physics instrumentation (e.g. bubble chambers, Cherenkov counters, gas track detectors, missing-mass spectrometers, spark chambers), other particle and radiation detection and measuring instruments

(e.g. instrumentation for medical diagnosis and therapy), electronic circuits and equipment, including automated systems for measurement, control and data processing, specifically designed for incorporation with such instruments, radiation effects on instruments, components or electronic devices (adverse or beneficial effects of radiation on the sensitivity, accuracy or performance)

Methods for radiation detection and other physical methods for scientific or analytical uses (x-ray and gamma spectroscopy; nuclear spectroscopy; NMR etc.), when the emphasis is on the method and instrumentation, not the results

Calibration standards

Methods for experimental data acquisition and analysis

S47 Other instrumentation

Other instrumentation and methods required in nuclear science and its applications (e.g., flow meters, pressure gauges, well logging, etc.)

S54 Environmental sciences

This category is used for pollutants/contaminants in the environment that cannot be directly connected with a particular energy source. If the source is clear, the subject category for the energy source is used.

Monitoring and transport of radioactive materials and radioisotopes, monitoring of ionizing radiations (whether natural or not) in environment (soils, groundwater, surface waters, geosphere, and the earth's atmosphere), including contamination and decontamination, monitoring and transport of chemical and thermal effluents from nuclear facilities in the environment

Environmental aspects of nuclear installations other than fission reactors or fuel cycle installations

Measures for restoration of the land and surface waters following radioactive contamination or chemical or thermal pollution from nuclear facilities, land and water use and reclamation,

measures for cleaning the atmosphere following radioactive contamination or chemical pollution from nuclear facilities

Regional and global environmental aspects of nuclear and nonnuclear energy production (e.g., acid rain, global warming, carbon capture and sequestration), irrespective of the energy source, including studies on nuclear winter

S58 Geosciences

Basic seismological, geological and soil, hydrological, meteorological, climatic, and atmospheric studies of existing or potential sites used for any phase of nuclear energy development, use of nuclear methods (e.g. radiometric methods using radioisotopes or ionizing radiations) in basic terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric studies

Use of nuclear and isotopic techniques in studies for water resources development

S60 Applied life sciences

Plant cultivation and breeding: crop and plant improvement by development of radiation-induced mutants, including use of radiomimetic substances in comparative studies, nuclear techniques (tracers only if the application is new) in plant growth and cultivation, including plant nutrition, metabolism, fertilizer utilization, and irrigation studies, assessment of seed quality by nuclear or radiographic techniques, low-dose stimulation of plant growth

Pest and disease control: nuclear techniques (tracers only if the application is new) relating to specific human, animal and plant parasitic diseases, to pathogens, including viruses, and to disease transmission, radiation procedures in vaccine production and animal reactions to irradiated pathogens, new applications of tracers in pest ecology, including host-parasite relationships, and in studying pesticides (including weed control) and insect pathogens, radiation sterilization for control of insects and other arthropods of agricultural significance (e.g. sterile insect release)

Food protection, preservation and human nutrition evaluation: irradiation procedures for, and radiation effects on, agricultural food products, fish and fish products, processed foods and food ingredients, processed animal feed, extension of storage life and sprout inhibition; radiation disinfestation of stored and packaged food products and chemical changes resulting from irradiation; radiation processing of food on an industrial scale; detection of the fact that food was irradiated; evaluation of wholesomeness and quality of irradiated food; public acceptance, labelling and commercialization of irradiated food; contamination and monitoring of, and decontamination procedures for food; new applications of isotopic techniques in human nutrition evaluation

Animal husbandry: new applications of tracers in nutrition, metabolism and breeding of domestic animals, nuclear techniques in veterinary science

Other applications of radiations and radioisotopes in life sciences: irradiation sterilization in medicine, nuclear techniques and applications of radiation and stable or radioactive isotopes (tracers only if the tracer or application is new) in the life sciences

S61 Radiation protection and dosimetry

Radiation protection standards: technical standards, including definitions and units, dealing with the presence of radioactive materials, natural or artificial (e.g. radon in houses or mines), or with the operation of reactors or other nuclear equipment or facility when such standards are set to provide radiation protection for man, documents about such standards

Radiation protection procedures: procedures designed wholly or primarily to provide radiation protection for man (except for shielding of reactors and accelerators), prevention of contamination or procedures for decontamination, including chemical decontamination of materials, structures and equipment, measurements of clearance or exemption levels

Dosimetry and monitoring: personnel dosimetry and radiation monitoring (e.g., in nuclear facilities, industry, radiotherapy, X-ray diagnostics, nuclear medicine) for both patients and medical personnel, medical surveillance of personnel exposed to ionizing radiations in conformance with national or international radiation protection regulations or recommendations, population dose estimates, collective dose and dose commitment from natural background radiation (e.g. radon in houses or mines), or as a result of nuclear accidents, from medical or industrial use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations or from contaminated food, calculation and measurement of absorbed doses in man, animals, plants and other biological systems at all levels, as well as in tissue-equivalent materials and phantoms

Legal aspects of protecting personnel, members of the public, and the environment against contamination from the operation of nuclear facilities, legal aspects of direct or indirect applications of radioisotopes and radiation to man (e.g., medical and industrial applications, food irradiation, radiation from consumer products)

S62 Radiology and nuclear medicine

External radiation in diagnosis: advances in the use of ionizing radiations (e.g., X-rays, bremsstrahlung, gamma radiation, neutrons, charged particles) for diagnostic purposes, advances in imaging procedures, including NMR spectroscopy and tomography

Note: sonography and routine X-ray diagnostics are excluded

Radioisotopes in diagnosis: advances in the use of radioisotopes and stable isotopes for diagnostic purposes, imaging and non-imaging procedures, radioassay, including radioimmunoassay, incorporation and elimination of radioisotopes and labeled compounds, advances in Single Photon ECT, Positron Computed Tomography

External radiation in therapy: advances in the use of ionizing radiations for therapeutic purposes (implants are included), surface and depth dose distributions, afterloading, irradiation and dose planning, use of response modifying factors in radiation therapy

Radioisotopes in therapy: advances in the use of radioisotopes for therapeutic purposes, internal dose distributions, response modifying factors, radioactivation (e.g. neutron capture therapy), incorporation and elimination of radioisotopes and labeled compounds

S63 Radiation, thermal, and other environmental pollutant effects on living organisms and biological materials

Effects of external irradiation on biochemicals, on cell and tissue cultures, and on microorganisms: effects of radiations, including ultraviolet radiation and laser radiation, on living systems at the biochemical, cellular and tissue culture level, on isolated cell constituents, and on microorganisms, both animals and plants (e.g., bacteria, bacteriophages, rickettsiae, yeasts, viruses), including the relative effects of irradiation procedures, doses, dose rates, Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and various response modifying factors

Effects of external irradiation on plants: effects of ionizing radiations on plants or parts of plants (seeds, roots, leaves, etc.), plant growth, physiology and metabolism, including the relative effects of irradiation procedures, doses, dose rates, Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) and Linear Energy Transfer (LET), modification of effects of such radiation due to various response modifying factors, such as radioprotective and effect-enhancing substances or irradiation conditions

Effects of external irradiation on animals: effects of ionizing radiations, including immunological consequences, on any animal, the relative effects of irradiation procedures, doses, dose rates, Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) and Linear Energy Transfer (LET), modification of effects of such radiations due to various response modifying factors, such as radioprotective or effect-enhancing substances or irradiation conditions, side effects

(e.g. toxicity) of such substances, effects of radiomimetic substances and radiation in comparative studies

Effects of external irradiation on man: effects of ionizing radiations, including immunological consequences, and acute and late effects, on man, the relative effects of irradiation procedures, doses, dose rates, Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and quality factors, modification of effects of such radiations due to various response modifying factors, such as radioprotective or effect-enhancing substances or irradiation conditions, side effects (e.g. toxicity) of such substances, side and late effects of such radiations in medical diagnosis and therapy, epidemiological studies of possible radiation-caused illness

Effects of internal irradiation and various aspects of radioisotope kinetics and toxicity in man, animals, plants and microorganisms: acute and late effects of absorbed or incorporated radioactive materials (not implanted sources or afterloading), internal source evaluation, side and late effects, including toxicity, of the use of radioisotopes in bound or unbound form in diagnosis and therapy, radioisotope kinetics, localization, uptake and elimination of radioisotopes at all levels (subcellular, cellular, tissue, organ and whole organism), contamination and decontamination (both internal and external), use of chelating agents or complex forming agents, modifying factors and radioprotective substances such as EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), stable iodine, epidemiological studies of possible radioisotope-caused illness

S70 Plasma physics and fusion technology

Plasma Physics

Note: includes only plasmas related to nuclear fusion

Plasma confinement, both magnetic and inertial confinement (studies on plasma lifetime, particle and heat loss, energy balance in plasma and fusion devices, enhanced confinement concepts, alpha particle confinement, disruptions), plasma production, heating, and interactions (ohmic, radiofrequency, microwave, ICR, ECR and lower hybrid heating, plasma heating by laser or particle beams, shock waves, compression, plasma production by guns or other means, electromagnetic wave propagation and absorption, interactions with antennas, walls, probes and sheaths, current drive), plasma kinetic equations, thermodynamic properties, neoclassical theory, plasma transport, plasma impurities, plasma simulation, plasma waves (electrostatic, electrodynamic, MHD, sound, drift or other waves, linear or nonlinear), plasma oscillations, plasma instabilities (macro- and micro-instabilities), turbulence, solitons, BGK modes, shock waves, plasma fluid and MHD properties (MHD equilibria and resistive MHD effects), nuclear fusion reactions (exoenergetic fusion reactions between nuclei of light elements in plasma, beam-induced fusion, cold fusion, muon-catalyzed fusion, etc.), elementary and classical processes in plasmas (particle orbits, electron, atom, ion, molecule and heavy-particle collisions in plasmas), plasma diagnostic techniques and instrumentation (diagnostic techniques and instrumentation for rf, optical, X-ray, gamma-ray and particle measurements), other physics studies of fusion plasmas.

Fusion Technology

Note: includes hybrid reactors

Fusion devices and experiments (design and specifications of magnetic or inertial confinement devices, implosion physics, studies related to laser fusion, electron beam fusion and ion beam fusion, safety analyses of fusion devices), plasma-facing components (physics and engineering related to first wall, liners, limiters, divertors, impurity control, etc.), magnet coils and fields (experiments, design analyses and design codes related to magnets and magnetic field configurations), power supplies and energy storage (design and performance analyses for any power supply or energy storage system associated with a fusion device), blankets and cooling systems (physics and engineering studies of blankets, and studies of heat transfer or system components), other components of fusion devices (such as vacuum and exhaust systems, control systems, shielding), materials studies related to fusion research, heating and fueling systems (studies on any plasma gun, neutral beam source to be used for beam injection, or microwave or laser radiation source used for plasma heating), fusion fuels (studies on deuterium, tritium, boron -11, etc., for use as fuel, including processing, inventories and availability), power conversion systems (studies on MHD topping cycles, direct energy converters, gas turbines, etc.)

Economics of Fusion Nuclear Power and Fusion Fuel Cycle

Note: includes economic aspects of hybrid reactors

(economic aspects of fusion nuclear energy, forecasts, R & D expenditures, economic comparison of fusion reactors with alternative power sources or of different reactor types, financing of fusion nuclear power, methodology of comparative analysis of fusion nuclear energy and other energy costs, economic aspects of fusion fuel production or recovery, forecasts of fusion fuel requirements, R & D expenditures, economic aspects of waste management, economic aspects of nuclear accidents)

S71 Classical and quantum mechanics, general physics

Aspects of classical mechanics of interest for nuclear science and technology; general aspects of quantum mechanics (formalism, theory of measurement, mathematical models, non-relativistic scattering theory, semiclassical theories), qubits, quantum information, quantum entanglement, quantum computers, quantum teleportation, etc., not applied to a specific field; general theory of scattering;

Cryogenics: methods and equipment for low temperature application in systems of interest for nuclear science for which no more appropriate category is identifiable, basic cryogenic studies relevant to nuclear technology or in which nuclear phenomena are involved (e.g. nuclear alignment at low temperature), vacuum production and techniques at cryogenic temperatures and of interest for nuclear science and technology

Particle beam production and handling, targets: beam production and transport of electron, neutron, ion, atomic and molecular beams (not for specific applications); non-isotopic electron, neutron and ion sources (not developed for specific applications); nuclear target preparation using ion, atomic or molecular beams

Note: "Quantum beams" and "micro-beams" are included if they are composed of the particles listed above.

Laser beam production and handling; laser-driven science

Auroral, ionospheric and magnetospheric phenomena

Other aspects of physical science of nuclear relevance: classical mechanics; electromagnetism; optics; acoustics; thermodynamics; physics of gases, plasmas and electric discharges (excluding fusion plasma)

Note: restricted to physical processes or studies of systems or materials of stated nuclear relevance

S72 Physics of elementary particles and fields

Theory of fields and strings (axiomatic, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches, renormalization, field theories in higher dimensions, such as Kaluza-Klein theories, Schwinger source theory, Bethe-Salpeter equations, relativistic wave equations, lattice gauge theory, techniques employed in field theory studies, such as strong-coupling expansions, theories of strings and other extended objects in the context of elementary particles - branes, M-theory (membrane theory), de Sitter space, anti de Sitter space, etc., superstring theory, theory of quantized fields, etc.)

Symmetry, conservation laws, currents and their properties (Lorentz and Poincare invariance, C, P, T and other discrete symmetries, flavor symmetries, internal symmetries, supersymmetry, spontaneous symmetry breaking, chiral symmetries, current algebras, studies concerning scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial vector and tensor currents, etc.), S-matrix theory (scattering matrices, dispersion relations, sum rules, bootstraps, crossing symmetries, Mandelstam representation, Regge formalism, etc.)

Relativistic scattering theory, unified theories and models (models of electroweak interactions, extensions of gauge or Higgs sector, quark and lepton masses and mixing, applications of electroweak models to specific processes, neutral currents in electroweak interactions, unified theories and models of strong and electroweak interactions, including those that involve gravitation, etc.)

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) (specific calculations and limits of QED, experimental tests of QED)

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) (general properties, lattice QCD calculations, quark-gluon plasma, experimental tests)

Models for strong interactions (bag models, statistical models, Regge poles and cuts, peripheral, multiperipheral and multi-Regge models, duality and dual models, bootstrap model, absorptive, optical and eikonal models, potential models, vector-meson dominance, other composite models of quarks, leptons, gauge bosons, symmetry breaking, hadron mass formulas, etc.)

Interactions, decays and processes (interactions of leptons (i.e. neutrinos, electrons, muons, tauons, and their corresponding antiparticles), photons and hadrons (e.g., nucleons, hyperons, pions, kaons and other mesons), decays of mesons, baryons, leptons, intermediate bosons (W+, W-, Z), electromagnetic processes and properties (electromagnetic mass differences, form factors and decays, electromagnetic moments, electromagnetic corrections to strong- and weak- interaction processes, etc.)

Properties of particles and resonances (properties of baryons and baryon resonances, meson and meson resonances, leptons, other particles, e.g., photons, quarks, intermediate bosons, including hypothetical particles, such as gluons, Higgs bosons, magnetic monopoles, supersymmetric particles, tachyons, etc.)

S73 Nuclear physics and radiation physics

Nuclear Structure

General and average properties of nuclei and nuclear energy levels: masses, binding energies, mass and charge distributions, spin, parity, isospin, spectroscopic factors, static electromagnetic moments, level densities, strength functions, collective levels and giant resonances, Coulomb energies, nuclear forces, few-nucleon systems, nuclear matter, hypernuclei, etc. Nuclear structure models and methods: shell models, collective models, models based on group theory, cluster models, Hartree-Fock and random-phase approximations, etc.

Radioactivity and electromagnetic transitions: alpha decay, proton-emission decay, decay by emission of heavier composite particles, beta decay, electron and muon capture, including weak-interaction and lepton aspects of beta decay and electron and muon capture by nuclei, and the relation with nuclear matrix elements and nuclear structure, transition probabilities and lifetimes, multipole matrix elements, multipole mixing ratios, internal conversion and extranuclear effects, nuclear resonance fluorescence, angular distribution and correlation measurements of electromagnetic transitions, gamma transitions and level energies, Moessbauer effect, etc....

Nuclear reactions and scattering: nuclear reactions and scattering of photons, leptons, mesons, nucleons, deuterons, tritons, helions, alpha particles, heavy ions, and hyperons, including fission (both induced and spontaneous); models and methods, resonance reactions and scattering, direct reactions, statistical reactions and fluctuations, polarization in reactions and scattering

Radiation Physics

Note: X radiation, gamma radiation, bremsstrahlung, neutrons, electrons, protons, deuterons, alpha particles, heavy ions, other particles

(interactions of radiations with bulk matter and radiation transport: scattering, absorption, diffusion of radiations as they pass through macroscopic systems, including thermalization, multiplication, and moderation, solution of transport equations and theoretical transport in matter in general geometric configurations such as spheres, cylinders, plates, etc., range-energy relations, energy loss mechanisms and absorption mechanisms, shielding calculations and experiments for which no more appropriate category is identifiable)

S74 Atomic and molecular physics

Theory of electronic structure of atoms and molecules: general theory of electronic structure and transitions, specific calculations and results for atoms relevant to nuclear physics or technology, such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, fission products, lanthanides, scandium, technetium, yttrium, and elements with Z greater than 83, and for molecules of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, fission products, and compounds of technetium and elements with Z greater than 83, effects of molecular interactions on electronic structure of the atoms and molecules specified above, corrections to electronic structure, e.g. hyperfine interactions, isotope effects, radiative and relativistic effects, for the atoms specified above, excited states of the atoms and molecules specified above

Atomic and molecular spectra, interactions with photons: Zeeman and Stark effects, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and relaxation, optical activity, dichroism, magneto-optical and electro-optical effects, and photon collisions with atoms of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, fission products, lanthanides, scandium, technetium, yttrium, and elements with Z greater than 83, molecules of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, fission products, compounds of technetium and elements with Z greater than 83, and elements of interest for thermonuclear fusion, such as lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, oxygen, neon, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, argon, titanium, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, gallium, krypton, niobium, molybdenum, xenon, tantalum and tungsten, fluorescence and phosphorescence of promethium and its compounds and the atoms and molecules specified above, use of nuclear phenomena and techniques in studies of any aspects of atomic and molecular properties and structure, e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), multiple resonances (DNMR, ENDOR, etc.), Moessbauer effect for the atoms or molecules specified above

Collision phenomena: general theories and models, experimental and theoretical studies of elastic scattering, excitation, de-excitation, excitation transfer, ionization, dissociation, charge exchange, electron capture, electron loss, electron attachment, or electron detachment in electron-ion, electron-atom, electron-molecule, ion-ion, ion-atom, ion-molecule, atom-atom, and atom-molecule collisions, involving atoms, molecules or ions of nuclear relevance or of interest for thermonuclear fusion Experimentally derived information on atomic and molecular properties: masses, abundances, moments, polarizability, fine- and hyperfine-structure constants, ionization potentials, electron affinities, bond strengths, dissociation energies, rotation, vibration and vibration-rotation constants, etc., of atoms of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, fission products, lanthanides, scandium, technetium, yttrium, and elements with Z greater than 83, molecules of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, fission products, compounds of technetium and elements with Z greater than 83, and for elements of interest for thermonuclear fusion Special atoms and molecules: positronium, muonium, muonic and mesic atoms and molecules, hyperonic atoms and molecules, i.e. atoms in which the nucleus is a positron or muon, or which have one or more particles other than electrons in the electronic structure, quantum properties of macromolecules and atomic and molecular clusters, other special atoms and molecules

S75 Condensed matter physics, superconductivity and superfluidity

Nuclear techniques in condensed matter physics: advances in the use of nuclear techniques or measurement methods in studies of the structure, including electronic structure, of solids and liquids (e.g., neutron diffraction and scattering, spin-polarized electron scattering, synchrotron -source X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation, including ENDOR, DNMR), muon spin rotation and relaxation, Moessbauer effect and other gamma -ray spectroscopy, positron annihilation

Solid-state plasma, physics of surfaces, interfaces and thin films: studies of solid-state plasma in bulk matter, surfaces, interfaces and thin films, including electron-hole droplets, physics studies of surfaces, interfaces and thin films of indicated interest for nuclear science and technology

Physics of direct electricity production: basic studies of magnetohydrodynamics (movement of conducting fluids in magnetic or crossed electric and magnetic fields), electrohydrodynamics (movement of nonconducting fluids in electric fields), thermoelectric effect, thermionic emission, etc., of relevance to energy/nuclear science and technology Note: for direct energy conversion devices and equipment use S30

Interactions between beams and condensed matter: (effects, including channeling, blocking, ion implantation and generation of crystal defects, from bombardment with laser radiation, X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, positrons, neutrons, ions, atoms, and molecules where the interest is in the effect itself at the microscopic level and not in the material in which it takes place; impact phenomena, Auger emission, secondary emission, sputtering, etc., from the collisions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules with surfaces

Note: "Quantum beams" and "micro-beams" are included if they are composed of the particles listed above.

Quantum physics aspects of condensed matter such as superconductivity (both low-temperature and high-temperature superconductivity) (basic superconductivity studies relevant to nuclear technology, basic theory, review studies, general properties, such as magnetization curves, thermodynamic properties, response to electromagnetic fields, nuclear magnetic resonance, flux pinning, critical currents), superconducting devices (application of superconductivity in magnets or other devices of use in nuclear science, including devices using superconductors or superconducting junctions as components; routine applications are excluded), superfluidity (phenomenology, hydrodynamics, transport processes, models, etc., of superfluid helium-4 (He II), superfluid helium-3 and He II-He-3 mixtures), other quantum aspects of condensed matter (e.g. studies of phenomena relying on quantum statistics, electron-phonon coupling, spin-lattice relaxation, energy bands)

S77 Nanoscience and nanotechnology

All aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which encompasses both the control of matter and the fabrication of devices with critical dimensions in the nanometer size range. Theoretical and experimental studies as well as applications are included.

All applications of radiation in nanoscience and nanotechnology

Nanostructure chemistry and nanomaterials: nanoscale chemical structures; nanocomposites; quantum dots, quantum wells, quantum wires, nanotubes, nanorods, 2D-graphite layers, fullerenes, nanocrystals; sol-gels, quasi crystals; nanoengineered membranes; crystal growth methods like molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), chemical beam epitaxy (CBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), etc., as applied in nanotechnology; properties of nanomaterials and effects of radiation on nanomaterial properties

Nanodevices and nanoelectronics: nanocomputing devices; nanotransistors; nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS); molecular electronics; nanoscale magnetics, etc.

Nanomedicine and nanotechnology: biomolecular and biomimetic devices; biosensors; molecular motors; biomolecular fabrics; engineered enzymes and proteins; drug discovery and drug delivery systems, etc.

Nanoprocesses: "bottom up" processes like self assembly, directed assembly, self organization; "top down" processes like electron beam nanolithography, ion beam nanolithography, X-ray nanolithography, laser nanomachining; nuclear track membranes; ion etching; nanomechanics; molecular simulation; scanning probe writing and fabrication, etc.

Nanometrology: electron beam techniques (transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc.); scanning probe techniques (scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc.); optical techniques (near-field scanning optical microscopy, tip-enhanced Raman microscopy, optical tweezers, etc.)

Note: Only if it is of relevance for nuclear technology or of nuclear interest or if it is associated with an actual or simulated nuclear application or radiation application

S79 Astrophysics, cosmology and astronomy

Application of physical theories and methods to study solar, stellar and galactic origin, structures and evolution, stellar objects and galaxies; and related problems in cosmology

Note: Only if it is of nuclear interest or if it is associated with cosmic radiation, nuclear and high-energy physics.

Fundamental Aspects of Astronomy and Astrophysics: X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, infrared astronomy, ultraviolet astronomy, and radio and radar astronomy; Astrophysical processes (in sun, stars, interstellar space etc.): elementary particle, nuclear, atomic and molecular processes and data, spectra and spectral parameters

Solar System: Formation and evolution of the solar and planetary systems; structure and spectra of the Sun, sunspots and solar prominences, radio bursts, etc.; radio emissions from planets, natural radioactivity and age determination of extraterrestrial materials, and radiation belts of planets

N.B. Celestial mechanics and routine astronomical observations, e.g. sky surveys, are excluded.

Stellar systems, galactic and extragalactic objects and systems, Universe: Formation, composition, structure and evolution of stars, stellar systems, star clusters, neutron stars, black holes and galaxies; radio and x-ray sources, quasars, radio galaxies, supernova remnants etc.

Interplanetary/interstellar space: Characteristics of the interstellar medium: magnetic fields, gravitational fields; identification of molecular species in space; dark matter (stellar, interstellar, galactic and cosmological); gravitational collapse; dark energy

Space plasma phenomena: Solar wind plasma, sources of solar wind, stellar wind, galactic wind, plasmasphere, plasma temperature and density, particle acceleration, plasma waves, plasma and MHD instabilities, dusty plasma, plasma interaction with particles and fields, radiation processes

Cosmic radiation: composition, energy spectra, interactions, extensive air showers, cosmic rays propagation and detection, solar radiation, stellar radiation (x-rays, gamma-rays, neutrinos, muons, pions and other elementary particles), induced radioactivity of extraterrestrial material, e.g. meteorites and lunar material.

Cosmology: Origin, formation and evolution of the universe; relict radiation; particle and field theory models for early universe (including cosmic pancakes, cosmic strings, inflationary universe etc.); observational cosmology (Hubble constant, distance scale etc); quantum cosmology; gravitational waves, tests of general relativity.

Methods, equipment and instrumentation: Radio telescopes, X- and gamma-ray telescopes and instrumentation, space-borne and space research instruments, apparatus and components; gravitational wave detectors; spectroscopy; artificial earth satellites and spacecraft; measuring methods in astrophysics.

S96 Knowledge management and preservation

Knowledge Management (to be of use in all sectors of nuclear science and technology) including policies and strategies for nuclear knowledge management and knowledge preservation programs; methods and tools that have been used to implement knowledge management and preservation programs; terminology, concepts, and techniques associated with knowledge management

Human resources planning and knowledge transfer, practical examples of knowledge management applications within nuclear science and technology, nuclear education and training, partnerships and networking to support nuclear knowledge management and education and training

Nuclear documentation, data and literature handling: descriptions and evaluations of systems, both manual and computer-based, for collecting, analyzing, evaluating and publishing data, literature and bibliographic information relating to nuclear science and its applications; nuclear libraries, standardization of nuclear terminology

S97 Mathematical methods and computing

Mathematical methods and models, simulations and computer codes, programming, computer architecture, supercomputers and supercomputing for applications in nuclear science and technology

S98 Nuclear disarmament, safeguards and physical protection

Legal aspects of nuclear disarmament: all nuclear safeguards issues, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear-weapon free zones, including the monitoring of nuclear materials derived from arms reduction and conversion, comprehensive nuclear weapons test ban, national arms control policy and aspects of treaty compliance and verification, physical protection, peaceful nuclear explosions, peaceful uses of sea-bed and space, nuclear weapons tests

Safeguards (those measures designed to guard against the diversion of material, such as source and special nuclear material, from uses permitted by law or treaty, and to give timely indication of possible diversion or credible assurance that no diversion has occurred):

Technical aspects of safeguards: research, development and implementation of systems, techniques, instrumentation and inspection procedures to detect diversion of nuclear material or materials of special interest, such as heavy water from peaceful nuclear activities, including monitoring nuclear materials derived from arms reduction and conversion; development of nuclear materials accounting systems covering the physical security of materials in transit, in use or in storage

Non-technical aspects of safeguards: administrative, political, economic, organizational and other aspects of the development and application of safeguards, including implementation of safeguards to the verification arrangements for regional nuclear-weapon-free-zones and the monitoring of nuclear materials derived from arms reduction and conversion

Nuclear security and physical protection (Prevention and detection of and response to malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material in order to combat the risk of nuclear terrorism)

Technical aspects of nuclear security: methods and techniques to protect nuclear and other radioactive materials from theft and diversion, protect nuclear installations and transport against sabotage and other malicious acts, and to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials

Non-technical aspects of nuclear security: administrative, political, economic, organizational aspects and legal instruments (e.g. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Nuclear Terrorism Convention, etc.) relevant to enhancing nuclear security

S99 General and miscellaneous

Organization and administration of nuclear activities: general relevant documents dealing with organization, administration, financing and general description of nuclear institutes and programs (e.g., directories, reference books, manuals, lists of publications, general bibliographies, training programs), constitution of competent authorities, legal aspects of governmental bodies, international organizations, public and semi-public undertakings, private corporations, legislation on research and development, patent regimes, state security, legal aspects of emergency planning

Miscellaneous: historical, philosophical, educational aspects of relevance to nuclear science and technology, progress reports covering several scientific disciplines of relevance to nuclear science and technology, if bibliographic subdivision is not possible or warranted

Appendix 1. Guide for elements of nuclear interest

This list is provided as a guide to the principal elements of nuclear interest. In addition to the elements mentioned explicitly it also includes all fission products. Literature on elements not listed should only be included if positively identified as of nuclear interest. Even for the elements listed, judgment must be used. The study of a large molecule which incidentally includes an element of interest as a minor constituent seldom contributes to the knowledge of the properties of that element, and thus would be outside the scope of INIS.

ACTINIUM

 (Ac) 

NEPTUNIUM 

(Np) 

AMERICIUM

 (Am) 

NIOBIUM 

(Nb) 

ASTATINE 

(At) 

NOBELIUM 

(No) 

BERKELIUM

 (Bk) 

PLUTONIUM 

(Pu) 

BERYLLIUM

 (Be) 

POLONIUM 

(Po) 

BORON 

(B) 

PRASEODYMIUM 

(Pr) 

CADMIUM

 (Cd) 

PROMETHIUM 

(Pm) 

CALIFORNIUM

 (Cf) 

PROTACTINIUM 

(Pa) 

CERIUM

 (Ce) 

RADIUM 

(Ra) 

CESIUM

 (Cs) 

RADON 

(Rn) 

CURIUM 

(Cm) 

RHENIUM 

(Re) 

DYSPROSIUM

 (Dy) 

RUTHENIUM 

(Ru) 

EINSTEINIUM

 (Es) 

SAMARIUM 

(Sm) 

ERBIUM

 (Er) 

SCANDIUM 

(Sc) 

EUROPIUM

 (Eu) 

STRONTIUM 

(Sr) 

FERMIUM

 (Fm) 

TANTALUM 

(Ta) 

FRANCIUM

 (Fr) 

TECHNETIUM 

(Tc) 

GADOLINIUM 

(Gd) 

TELLURIUM 

(Te) 

HAFNIUM

 (Hf) 

TERBIUM 

(Tb) 

HOLMIUM

 (Ho) 

THORIUM 

(Th) 

INDIUM

 (In) 

THULIUM 

(Tm) 

IODINE 

(I) 

TUNGSTEN (WOLFRAM) 

(W) 

LANTHANUM

 (La) 

URANIUM 

(U) 

LAWRENCIUM

 (Lr) 

VANADIUM 

(V) 

LITHIUM 

(Li) 

YTTERBIUM 

(Yb) 

LUTETIUM 

(Lu) 

YTTRIUM 

(Y) 

MENDELEVIUM 

(Md) 

ZIRCONIUM 

(Zr) 

MOLYBDENUM 

(Mo) 

ALL ELEMENTS WITH Z>103 

 

NEODYMIUM 

(Nd) 

ALL FISSION PRODUCTS 

 

Appendix 2. The international nuclear event scale

for prompt communication of safety significance

LEVEL

DESCRIPTOR

CRITERIA

EXAMPLES

ACCIDENTS

7

MAJOR ACCIDENT

External release of a large fraction of the radioactive material in a large facility (e.g. the core of a power reactor). This would typically involve a mixture of short and long-lived radioactive fission products (in quantities radiologically equivalent to more than tens of thousands terabecquerels of iodine-131). Such a release would result in the possibility of acute health effects; delayed health over a wide area, possibly involving more than one country; long-term environmental consequences.

Chernobyl NPP, USSR (now in Ukraine), 1986

6

SERIOUS ACCIDENT

External release of radioactive material (in quantities radiologically equivalent to the order of thousands to tens of thousands of terabecquerels of iodine-131). Such a release would be likely to result in full implementation of countermeasures covered by local emergency plans to limit serious health effects.

Kyshtym Reprocessing Plant, USSR (now in Russia), 1957

5

ACCIDENT WITH OFF-SITE RISK

External release of radioactive material (in quantities radiologically equivalent to the order of hundreds to thousands of terabecquerels of iodine-131). Such a release would be likely to result in partial implementation of countermeasures covered by emergency plans to lessen the likelihood of health effects.

Windscale Pile, UK, 1957

Severe damage to the nuclear facility. This may involve severe damage to a large fraction of the core of a power reactor, a major criticality accident or a major fire or explosion releasing large quantities of radioactivity within the installation.

Three Mile Island, USA, 1979

4

ACCIDENT WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT OFF-SITE RISK

External release of radioactivity resulting in a dose to the most exposed individual off-site of the order of a few millisievert. With such a release the need for off-site protective actions would be generally unlikely expect possibly for local food control.

Significant damage to the nuclear facility. Such an accident might include damage to nuclear plant leading to major on-site recovery problems such as partial core melt in a power reactor and comparable events at non-reactor installations.

Windscale Reprocessing Plant, UK, 1973 Saint-Laurent NPP, France, 1980

Irradiation of one or more workers which results in an overexposure where a high probability of early death occurs.

Buenos Aires Critical Assembly, Argentina, 1983

3

SERIOUS INCIDENT

External release of radioactivity above authorized limits, resulting in a does to the most exposed individual off site of the order of tenths of millisievert. With such a release, off-site protective measures may not be needed. On-site events resulting in doses to workers sufficient to cause acute health effects and/or an event resulting in a severe spread of contamination for example a few thousand terabecquerels of activity released in a secondary containment where the material can be returned to a satisfactory storage area.

Incidents in which a further failure of safety systems could lead to accident conditions, or a situation in which safety systems would be unable to prevent an accident if certain initiators were to occur.

Vandellos NPP, Spain, 1989

2

INCIDENT

Incidents with significant failure in safety provisions but with sufficient defense in depth remaining to cope with additional failures.

An event resulting in a dose to a worker exceeding a statutory annual dose limit and/or an event which leads to the presence of significant quantities of radioactivity in the installation in areas not expected by design and which require corrective action.

1

ANOMALY

Anomaly beyond the authorized operating regime. This may be due to equipment failure, human error or procedural inadequacies. (Such anomalies should be distinguished from situations where operational limits and conditions are not exceeded and which are properly managed in accordance with adequate procedures. These are typically "below scale".)

BELOW SCALE/ ZERO

DEVIATION

NO SAFETY SIGNIFICANCE

The doses are expressed in terms of effective dose equivalent (whole body dose). Those criteria where appropriate can also be expressed in terms of corresponding annual effluent discharge limits authorized by National Authorities.